No One Here Gets Out Alive: Federico Fellini's Toby Dammit
This is an essay on Federico Fellini's short film from 1968 that sits between the longer feature films - Juliet of the Spirits and Satyricon - that have become iconic within the Italian master's filmography. The film was made in a period of transition where Fellini began to have enormous doubts about the possibility of narrative, conventional or nor, to describe the contemporary world. These doubts would be incorporated into the film itself in a variety of ways, as Fellini, with great humor, mimics an encyclopedic array of narrative formulas and cinematic techniques. Toby Dammit is the most compelling observation of what Guy Debord, in the same period, called "The Society of the Spectacle" - the film eviscerates that social matrix and points the way to reasons why we needed to construct such a society in the first place. In many respects it goes beyond Debord's own films, suggesting a profoundly ambivalent death drive - linked to a narcissistic romanticism - that is out of control. With typical humor and fantastical pastiche Fellini goes into the deep end of spectacle, via Edgar Allan Poe, in one of the greatest short films ever made.
Leni Riefenstahl Essay
Leni Riefenstahl, a dazzling individual that has lived through and experienced many things that no other person may have. She has lived through the World War One, Great Depression, Nazi Germany, World War Two, the Cold war and September 11. However, what fascinates historians and people all over was her involvement and relationship with Hitler and the Nazis party. This report will look over Leni’s early to role as director of her Infamous films Triumph of the Will and Olympia and her involvement and view of Nazism and Hitler.
Helene Bertha Amelie (Leni) was born on 22 August 1902 in Berlin. Leni lived in a comfortable middle-class family. Since a young age Leni has had a passion for dance. Leni’s dancing career began in the 1920s, during the Weimar republic that saw the birth of a culturally and politically diverse nation. Max Reinhardt, a prominent producer hired Leni as a dancer. Leni soon extended her talents to choreography. Her dancing career suffered due to a continuos knee injuries and one in particular in 1925, when she performed Prague. However, her life was going to under go a dramatic change that would lead her to acting and finally directing. Suddenly the image of a man climbing a jagged mountain came into focus. The colourful poster was promoting a movie with predictive name “Mountain of Destiny”. Leni instantly became entranced with the movie and soon went off to meet Arnold Fanck who would open the world of cinema to Leni. She stared in six of his movies, such as The Holy Mountain, The Big Jump and the White Hell of Pitz Palu, where she was portrayed as the hero and where her physical proficiency was displayed (which has always been a male domain). Franck had become her mentor and it been his opening scene of the ‘The magic mountain’ that Hitler admired.
In 1932 the political situation in Germany was intensifying. The Republic was crumbling and the great depression was taking its toll on the German people. Leni was not greatly affected by the depression and saw little of the violence that was occurring. In Berlin she was persuaded by friends to attend a political rally at Sportsplatz where Hitler would give an address. Instantly Leni had become spellbound by Hitler as he did upon thousands-‘He radiated something very powerful,’ she later observed, ‘something which had a kind of hypotonic effect.’ Inspired by Hitler, Leni wrote to Hitler, who soon replied, as Hitler was an admirer of work. Hitler and Leni met in late 1932 on the Baltic coast. Hitler praised her and her work, which would have left no doubt that; she was flattered and captivated by Hitler. Hitler had told her that once the Nazis came into power that she would make movies for them. It was a start of friendship between the two.
Leni was fascinated with film and film techniques. So, in 1932 she produced, directed, edited and starred in The Blue Light. A fairytale story about a woman named Junta. Leni experimented greatly with colour filters, light...
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